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What is a denture? 

Removable dentures (or more commonly referred to as just "dentures") are not fixed like dental implants or bridges. They can be and need to be removed daily for cleaning and maintenance. Other than replacing just one or more missing teeth, they will have a plate that seats on the gums and the artificial teeth are attached to the plate. 
 The plates are made of metal and acrylic, but can also be made of acrylic only for temporary use. Newer flexible materials are also in use to make dentures, though they have very limited use. 
 Dentures can be made for one single tooth to all teeth of a jaw ("complete denture"). Dentures can me made taking support from remaining teeth, dental implants or just the jaw bones without teeth or implants. 

complete dentures
partial dentures

Partial dentures for some teeth

Complete dentures for all teeth

How are they made?

Fabricating dentures is a step by step process. Each step needs to be executed precisely and accurately, so that the final end product is most suitable for you functionally and cosmetically. 
1. (For partial denture only) - Preparing the existing teeth in the mouth to provide support to the denture
2. Making measurements ("impressions") of the gums and teeth on which the dentures will seat
3. Recording how you bite your teeth so the dentures will be a part of the bite
4. Trial dentures for complete dentures and metal framework of partial dentures are tried in the mouth before fabrication of the final dentures 
5. The final dentures are fabricated in the laboratory and inserted by the dentist in your mouth

What else should I know about Dentures? 

Dentures are the most cost-effective option for replacement of missing teeth.  You can know more about other treatment options for replacement of missing teeth, and compare them with dental implants here.  
 A denture is however not the best long term solution for missing teeth replacement. They are fraught with problems such as loss of underlying bone, weakening of support teeth and requirement of daily maintenance. 
 Dentures can also be made taking support not from teeth, but from implants. These offer much better results than routine dentures. They are more comfortable to the mouth, do not tend to fall out while you are eating or speaking and offer better oral health benefits. 
implant supported dentures
denture on implants

Upper teeth denture supported on dental implants

Lower teeth denture supported on dental implants

A quick "brush-up"
Removable dentures
Done for 
Replacement of one or more missing teeth
Number of sittings
2 - 5 sittings
Pain/ Discomfort
Soreness for a couple of days after new dentures are inserted
Dentures usually need replacement in 3-5 years, but if you had your teeth removed recently, they may become loose faster
Requires anesthesia (numbing)